Rehoboam, son of Solomon

After the death of Solomon, the people assembled at Shechem and demanded relief from the oppressive taxation imposed under his rule. Rehoboam ignored the sage wisdom of his older advisers and declared an even higher tax, which caused a revolt by the ten northern tribes.

As prophesied by Ahijah the Shilonite, the kingdom was split in two. God gave the ten northern tribes (1Ki 11:31) to Solomon's servant Jeroboam. Only the two southern tribes of Benjamin and Judah remained loyal to Rehoboam. This division of the kingdom was by God's design and His word came to the prophet Shemaiah, who warned Rehoboam not to pursue a civil war against the northern tribes.

ARCHEOLOGICAL NOTE: Shishak, an Egyptian king of the Assyrian dynasty provided refuge to Jeroboam who fled from Solomon during his last years of reign. Ally of Jeroboam, Shishak swept through Judah in the fifth year of Rehobam's reign to capture several cities including Jerusalem. The temple was plundered and Solomon's shields of gold were carried away. Judah was reduced to the position of a vassel of Egypt (1Ki 14:25; 2Ch 12:5-9). A record of this event is inscribed near the Bubasite Portal on the walls of the temple of Karnak at Thebes in upper Egypt. The relief records Shishak's triumph over Yehudah malekot - “Judah (the) Kingdom” and names the cities he captured.